At this point, it is important to note that this means the actual bone tissue, matrix and mineralization, is the result of the action of a new group of cells, the osteoblasts.
Please click on the set of exam notes of interest to start downloading them. Due to my shift of focus towards histology during this semester, time did not allow me to illustrate the last 12 questions of this set of exam notes.
Growth of cartilage can also be appositional, that is a layer of chondroblasts can lay down matrix at the outer edge of a mass of cartilage.
Growing adjacent trabeculae will contact and fuse forming the structure of the mature bone. Pharyngeal tonsils resemble those of the palate palatine tonsilsillustrated herebut Histology notes ciliated, pseudostratified epithelium rather than stratified squamous epithelium lining the surface and crypts.
Living chondrocytes have an eliptic shape. This is followed by hypertrophy they get bigger and eventual death of the chondrocytes within the cartilage matrix. This process, while preserving the structural integrity of the cells and tissue can damage the biological functionality of proteins, particularly enzymesand can also denature them to a certain extent.
The conducting passageways of the respiratory system nasal cavity, tracheabronchi and bronchioles are lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelial tissuewhich is ciliated and which includes mucus-secreting goblet cells.
Sadly for you, I passed the exam as Histology notes and never got the time I desired to re-write the histology first semester exam notes the way they should have been Histology notes. Endochondral - cartilage template formed that is replaced by bone e. Scattered among the squamous cells are occasional larger cuboidal cells, sometimes called greater alveolar cells and sometimes called Type II pneumocytes.
The main action of these aldehyde fixatives is to cross-link amino groups in proteins through the formation of methylene bridges -CH2-in the case of formaldehyde, or by C5H10 cross-links in the case of glutaraldehyde.
For examples of inflammation in other organs, see inflammation at WebPath. The whole digestive system is in the form of a long, hollow, twisted and turned tube, called the alimentary canal, which starts from the oral cavity and ends at the anus. The osteoblasts and the collagen and other components of the intercellular matrix form the organic osteoid framework of the bone.
As the cancellous bone is layed down, chondroclasts which are the cartilagenous equivalent of osteoclasts reabsorb the calcified cartilage as it is replaced by osteoid matrix i. Dominant component of extracellular matrix is collagen fibers.
These cells will begin to secrete collagen and mucopolysaccharide matrix containing chondroitin sulfate. However, through my eyes this is the best set of notes available in regional anatomy for the medical students here at POTE, and I basically found myself incapable of writing something better.
Horizontal also known as transverse or longitudinal sectioning, cut along the long axis of the tissue, is often used in the evaluation of the hair follicles and pilosebaceous units. Did you ever notice what a big nose a camel has? The shaft of a long bone consists of a medullary or central volume of spongy bone surrounded by a thick cortical layer of compact bone.
The regional anatomy exam notes are simply an appendix to Kovacs' Notes supplementing the missing bits and pieces. Human digestive system consists of the two categories of parts.
What we have just discussed is endochondral bone formation. The primary ossification center rapidly extends longitudinally within the diaphysis as the shaft of the cartilage template is completely replaced by cancellous Histology notes tissue. Unfixed frozen sections can also be used for studies requiring enzyme localization in tissues and cells.
As the cartilage continues to Histology notes, the central regions become more rigid due to various secretory products and the cells in this region become embedded in rigid matrix and take on the characteristics of mature chondrocytes.
These are in addition to the cavities already formed in spongy bone. The cells of this tissue are embedded within a matrix that consists of organic and inorganic components. This technique has greatly increased the ability to identify categories of cells under a microscope.
The spongy bone consists of slender, irregular trabeculae with large spaces between them where blood vessels, nerves, and marrow cells are located.
Both in large glands and in the respiratory system, a system of conducting passageways form a branching "tree", with functional units at the end of each twig. The osteoblasts begin to secrete osteoid matrix on the remnants of calcified cartilage. Gross anatomy is not meant to be learned by writing, but by admiring the beautiful art of Frank H.
Thus, the bones of your body are living, dynamic structures. Microtome For light microscopy, a steel knife mounted in a microtome is used to cut 4- micrometer -thick tissue sections which are mounted on a glass microscope slide. Simple squamous mesothelial tissue also lines the other major body cavities, pericardial and peritoneal.
Thus bronchi and bronchioles are, respectively, the larger and smaller branches of the air-conducting tree extending into the lung.
Staining is employed to give both contrast to the tissue as well as highlighting particular features of interest.I. Epithelial tissues.
A. General Characteristics. 1. covers all free body surfaces and lines organs. 2. anchored to connective tissue by basement membrane. Anatomy, Histology & Embryology Lecture Notes The earlier anatomy, histology & embryology exam was a TRUE monster. It was the dividing line between ordinary medical students and future medical doctors, and it used to be the only exam here at this medical school that would shake students to their very core every single time it's name was spoken out loud.
Blue Histology - Notes: All pages listed below are graphics intensive. They may take some time to load if you have a slow connection. These pages are not intended to be a replacement for a good textbook!
Cytology - The Basic Cell in preparation: Page Contents. Histology, also microanatomy, is the branch of biology which studies the tissues of animals and plants using microscopy. It is commonly studied using a light microscope or electron microscope, the specimen having been sectioned, stained, and mounted on a microscope samoilo15.comogical studies may be conducted using tissue culture, where live animal cells are isolated and maintained in an.
HISTOLOGY BIOL LECTURE NOTES #5B. CARTILAGE, BONE and BLOOD. CARTILAGE AND BONE LECTURE TEXT - POWERPOINT. BLOOD LECTURE TEXT - POWERPOINT. CARTILAGE. Cartilage is a resilient connective tissue composed of cells embedded in an extracellular matrix that is gel-like and has a rigid consistency.
FREE anatomy, histology and embryology lecture notes, study guide and exam help for medical, dentistry and nursing students.Download